Hacking Into Your Happy Chemicals: Dopamine, Serotonin, Endorphins, & Oxytocin

You might not have a money tree, but you can have a happiness tree. Dopamine, Serotonin, Oxytocin, and Endorphins are the quartet responsible for your happiness. Many situations can trigger these neurotransmitters, but instead of being in the passenger seat, there are ways you can intentionally cause them to flow.

Being in a positive state has significant impact on your motivation, productivity, and wellbeing. Here are some simple ways to hack into your positive neurochemicals:

[Download the free infographic below!]

Dopamine

Dopamine motivates you to take action toward your goals and gives you a surge of reinforcing pleasure when achieving them. Procrastination, self-doubt, and lack of enthusiasm are linked with low levels of dopamine. Studies on rats showed those with low levels of dopamine always opted for an easier option, and less reward/food; those with higher levels of dopamine exerted the effort needed to receive double the amount of food.

Break big goals down into little pieces. Rather than only allowing your brain to celebrate when you’ve hit the big finish line, you can create a series of little finish-lines for frequent dopamine release. And it’s crucial to actually celebrate—buy a bottle of wine, or head to your favorite restaurant whenever you meet a small goal.

And avoid the dopamine hangover — when you slump after a massive high. Create new goals before achieving your current one. That ensures a consistent pattern for experiencing dopamine. As an employer and leader, recognize the accomplishments of your team. Sending your team an encouraging email or giving a small bonus is a “dopamine-hit” that will increase future motivation and productivity.

Serotonin

Serotonin flows when you feel significant or important. Loneliness and depression are present when serotonin is absent. It’s why people fall into gangs and criminal activity—the culture and ‘community’ facilitate serotonin release. Unhealthy attention-seeking behaviors are also a cry for what serotonin provides. Princeton neuroscientist Barry Jacobs explains that most antidepressants focus on the production of serotonin.

Reflecting on your past achievements allows your brain to re-live the experience. Your brain has trouble telling the difference between what is real and what is imagined, so it produces serotonin in both cases. Gratitude practices are popular for this reason, they are reminders and mental pictures of all the good things you’ve experienced. If you need a serotonin boost during a stressful day, take a few moments to reflect on your past achievements and victories.

Another way to boost your serotonin levels is to have lunch or coffee outside and expose yourself to the sun for twenty minutes; your skin absorbs UV rays which promotes Vitamin-D and serotonin production. Although too much ultraviolet light isn’t good, some daily exposure is healthy for boosting your serotonin levels.

Oxytocin

The release of oxytocin creates intimacy, trust, and strengthens relationships. It’s released by men and women during orgasm, and by mothers during childbirth and breastfeeding. Animals will reject their offspring when the release of oxytocin is blocked. Oxytocin increases fidelity; men in monogamous relationships who were given a boost of oxytocin interacted with single women at a greater physical distance than men who weren’t given any oxytocin. Oxytocin is the glue that binds together healthy relationships.

Often referred to as “the cuddle hormone,” a simple way to keep oxytocin flowing is to give someone a hug. Dr. Paul Zak explains that inter-personal touch not only raises oxytocin, but reduces cardiovascular stress and improves the immune system. Rather than just a hand-shake, go in for the hug. Dr. Zak recommends eight hugs each day.

Giving someone a gift, will also cause their oxytocin levels rise. You can strengthen work and personal relationships through a simple birthday or anniversary gift.

Endorphins

Endorphins are released in response to pain and stress, and helps to alleviate anxiety. The surging “second wind” and euphoric “runners high” when running are a result of endorphins. Similar to morphine, it acts as an analgesic and sedative, diminishing your perception of pain.

Along with exercise, laughter is one of the easiest ways to induce endorphin release. Even the anticipation and expectation of laugher e.g. attending a comedy show, increases levels of endorphins. Taking your sense of humor to work, forwarding that funny email, and finding several things to laugh at during the day is a great way to keep your endorphins flowing.

Aromatherapies: the smell of vanilla and lavender has been linked with the production of endorphins. Studies have shown that dark chocolate and spicy foods will cause your brain to release endorphins. Keep some scented oils and dark chocolate at your desk for a quick endorphin boost.

Hacking Into Your Happy Chemicals-Dopamine- Serotonin Endorphins, Oxytocin

For another great article on your happy chemicals, check out Meet Your Happy Chemicals by Loretta G Breuning Ph.D.

131 Responses to “Hacking Into Your Happy Chemicals: Dopamine, Serotonin, Endorphins, & Oxytocin”

  1. June 13, 2015

    nick Reply

    Nice and straight forward explanation, have linked to this form our website to help some of our readers.

    • Thanks Nick!

    • October 5, 2016

      Dave otz Reply

      I was going to ask you if you had a PhD in this matter but by the non sense way you explained everything I see that you maybe read about it, please don’t confuse people and make them think that happy thoughts are going to kill their depression or to take antidepressants I did for 10 years and I would start smoking crack before touching another antidepressants in my life.My brain is unable to produce the normal amount I have tried everything in 20 years and the first 5 were the hardest thanks to happy dreamers wanna be gurus like you please don’t confuse people and study more about all kinds of depressions and study carcinoid syndrome that’s when the brain of a person has excessive amounts of serotonin and need a shot that is around $1,500 and is needed every month,insurance is covering people in some states finally, so a person with that syndrome needs to think negative thoughts to lower serotonin? Mr utopian life don’t make the suffering of people with depression be just a way of wrong thinking. Negative thoughts don’t make you depressed , depression makes you negative.

      • March 31, 2017

        Bettye Maxton Reply

        Sorry for your depression. The article is very well written. Perhaps you need to ask yourself, “Do you want to be healed?” Or, “Do you want to portray yourself as a victim?” Just for a moment consider that you might need to take some responsibility for your illness. Just try to apply his principals: Take raw cacao, exercise, even mild will help, get a lot of Vitamin D3, noonday sun til you get slightly pink if you live in the tropics, otherwise, try Vitamin D3 supplements, love people, help people, serve people, eat healthy organic juices, sprouts, beef liver. God says herbs are your medicine. I believe it. Thank this person that posted these articles to help you and others. I will pray for you.

        • May 6, 2017

          Jenney Sparks Reply

          Thanks for your comment, Bettye. You put into words what I was thinking.

        • Thanks, Bettye.

          Dave, I sincerely wish you the best, and that your physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health gets better.

        • May 20, 2017

          Martin Wright Reply

          Thank you *

      • June 29, 2017

        SF Reply

        Some people truly benefit from antidepressants. I do. And there are so many out there, you have to find the one that works for you. Without mine…. I’m unbearable to be around. Angry and hateful. Lexapro makes me feel completely normal – back to myself.

        • December 21, 2018

          Trevor Reply

          Yeah I took lexapro for a year. Wait til you try to get off it. You’ll think a lot less of that drug. Its literally close to fatal to stop taking it. It fucks with your mind and body so bad. Lexapro makes you feel normal because it blocks any true feelings. Makes you feel normal but empty. Then if you try to stop, you’d rather be dead than go through those withdrawals. Anti depressants are hell

          • December 31, 2018

            Thank you for posting!

            Trevor, you are so Spot On! Before anyone who would allow a physician to script them an antidepressant drug, I urge them to RESEARCH it on their own, before wasting deadly money on it.

        • January 25, 2019

          Mary KS Reply

          Hello SF,

          I agree with you! After losing my husband who was also my long-time best friend, I found myself unable to face any day. I would sleep until late afternoon. Once awake, I felt no enthusiasm for life. It felt like EVERYTHING was a chore, even getting myself to take a simple shower. Lexapro has helped me a lot and I am so grateful! I am finally beginning to see joy in the little things again. I no longer feel the need to stay in bed.
          Thank you so much for sharing. I pray you continue to feel good!
          I hope and pray the best for you.

          Mary

        • March 22, 2019

          Amelia Reply

          I am so grateful for anti- depressants. They have improved my mental state and well being. Sure there are side effects, but that doesn’t outweigh how much better I feel. Dare I say, I feel happy!

      • September 20, 2017

        Neeraj Reply

        https://youtu.be/EKkUtrL6B18

        The major difference between dopamine and serotonin explained.

        Dopamine is harmful inexcess quantities and serotonin is not

        • February 26, 2019

          angela Reply

          Not true AT ALL. I have had ” serotonin syndrome”. Look that up. It is deadly. I was in ICU for 3 days unconscious.

      • December 10, 2017

        john mav Reply

        hi dave. i’m a street guy studying human behavior to really learn more about me. were you able to work through some of these thoughts and if yes, how. I’m a former drinker and don’t accept quilting myself with “hi, my name is John and i’M an alcoholic” I continue to read about working through all this mess rather than consuming any chemicals. hope to hear from you.

        • December 10, 2017

          john mav Reply

          Hi betty. i like some of the alternatives to prescribed chemicals. I am also learning that many of my emotions are a result of my chemical imbalances. much of my early criticisms were merely due to my misunderstanding of myself. My criticisms only drove me more into anger. but if i really knew what i was doing i wouldn’t do it. I viewed it like not h
          i having nerve endings and not understanding why I continued to put my fingers in the fire. I hope my comments are not too wacked out or confusing.

      • January 16, 2018

        Tom hyper Reply

        Hey Dave, some people just don’t get what really depression is. The lady who said she’d pray for you!!! Give me a break!! Thanks but no thanks. When you’re truly depressed you can’t pull yourself out regardless of the sararonin raising drugs you are so low you don’t feel like doing any of the things that supposedly higher your serotonin. If you’ve never been severely depressed, you couldn’t ever understand.

        • September 17, 2018

          Joeg Voll Reply

          I’ve noticed a Common Trait amongst those that say they’re currently suffering from depression now. THEY’RE ALL RUDE ASSHOLES WITH NEGATIVE, PESSIMISTIC, ATTITUDES. It’s ALL about “ME, THE POOR PERPETUAL VICTIM” I’m not certain that they’re suffering from Depression. Seems to me they’re Pessimistic, Rude, Self-Absorbed Assholes! The one Jerk is actually whining because someone was so wrong, because they told the Asshole she hopes he gets better and she’ll pray for him! OH THE HUMANITY!!! HOW DARE YOU BE KIND AND PRAY FOR SOMEONE. ONLY AN ASSHOLE WOULD VIEW THAT AS A NEGATIVE! NO MATTER WHAT YOUR RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ARE OR ARE NOT! A DECENT PERSON DOESN’T COMPLAIN ABOUT A PERSON OF FAITH BEING KIND TO THEM. YOU’RE NOT SUFFERING FROM DEPRESSION!!! YOU’RE JUST A PESSIMISTIC SELF CENTERED ASSHOLE!!!

          • November 11, 2018

            Melissa W.

            This is my first time visiting the utopian life and most of these comments, not just yours, are very judgmental and seem to be “attacking” those who are sick mentally. Instead of declaring these people as rude, self absorbed and victim mentality, why not tell them that they are loved and they are not alone. How about.. Hey were here to help you and if you need someone to talk to, we’ll listen. Tom, Dave.. I know what depression is like. I am suffering from anhedonia for a few years now and have had depression for some time when I was younger. I just wanted to say do not give up. No matter how hard it is, look in the mirror every morning and tell yourself how happy and grateful you are. Watching funny videos every morning online will feel eventually also. I’m not sure if these things will help either of you, but I just wanted to mention things that helped me. I used to tell myself over and over throughout the day, how bad I felt and how I can’t stand feeling this way.. It truly does help to change those negative thoughts into positive ones. No matter how bad you feel, just keep telling yourself how great you feel and amazing your day is going to be. Do it over and over all day, every day. Fake it till ya make it. Now, I’m not saying it will cure your depression, as I do understand of chemical imbalances, but I will tell you that it helps to take the edge off. Anyway, thank you for sharing your thoughts and know that your not alone. Things will get better! It’s a beautiful day and I’m off to watch some funny videos.. If I laugh, I laugh, if not, that’s okay, I’m going to keep on trying! Best wishes to you both!

          • December 9, 2018

            William

            In the light of your comments – particularly your suggestion that those claiming to be depressed are “ALL RUDE ASSHOLES” – I’d like to ask: are you depressed?

          • January 8, 2019

            Deven S.

            Im glad someone said something. I’ve suffered from depression when I have nothing to be sad about and I still grasp the concept that life is what you make it. Treating others good is one of the best ways to feel any better sometimes and I couldn’t possibly imagine going on an emotional rant to hurt another person as some of the commenters appear to be doing here.

          • February 17, 2019

            D. M. Collins

            Joeg Voll, I’ve waited several months now before responding to your many comments. I’ve wanted for a long time to check if you’re doing okay, but first I wanted to make sure you had enough “cooling down time” so that what I’m about to say would not be taken as an attack.

            That said (and I enjoyed your use of capital letters for emphasis, so I’ll sprinkle this same effect throughout my response), ARE YOU DOING OKAY?

            One theme that shines out from all the posts you’ve made here is that you have a DISDAIN, if not an out-and-out HATRED, for those who are pessimistic, who complain, and who think about their OWN needs over the needs of others. You also can’t stand IGNORANCE, and want to take folks here to TASK for not BEING as informed about the issues AS they should be.

            And yet (and here’s the part THAT worries me), YOU are also PAINTING the PICTURE of your own SOUL in these same SHADES of RED and BLUE (and, if I have guessed correctly at your RACE, shades of WHITE, though let’s put that aside since that would MAKE red, white, and BLUE; I do not want to BESMIRCH the American flag or any PATRIOTISM that might be guiding YOU, though PERHAPS your name INDICATES coming from a NON-democratic country, in which case we FORGIVE you because IT’S NOT YOUR FAULT THAT YOU WERE BORN INTO A SOCIALIST THEOCRACY!!!).

            This makes me worried that your SPIRITED POSTS are actually the hallmarks of someone who hates HIMSELF and is BURSTING WITH ***URGES*** TO commit DANGEROUS ACTS of SELF-HARM. Of course, your urges of self-hate are totally understandable, and not a burden you alone face–I think almost any of us would feel the same if we were you–but I implore you NOT TO DO ANYTHING RASH BEFORE YOU ARE CONVINCED OF THE PROBLEM AND ARE AWARE THAT YOU NEED FIXING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

            LET’S TAKE the PESSIMISM first, because it’s something you hammer home again and again THAT you hate–and yet IN HOW you EXPRESS THIS, you seem very PESSIMISTIC your SELF–to the POINT of BEING kinda GRONKY! E.g. you state of the many people on this thread who themselves STATE that they have depression that “THEY’RE ALL RUDE ASSHOLES WITH NEGATIVE, PESSIMISTIC, ATTITUDES.”

            But are THEY?!? Most folks ARE being rather PLEASANT!!!! And are they GRIM OR OVERLY NEGATIVE?!? NOOOO!!!! They are sharing their STORIES, explaining what TOOLS THEY USED to conquer or QUELL THE SYMPTOMS of depression, and LOOKING OUT for EACH other, IN WAYS that seem RATHER SWEET and pleasant AND MELLOW!!!!!!!

            In fact compared to them, IT IS YOUUUUUU who seem to BE MORE self-centered, as you’re not ATTEMPTING TO lend a hand to FOLKS, UNLESS YOU THINK INSULTS COUNT AS ADVICE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

            You’re ALSO very pushy, pushy, PUSHY!!!!!!!! E.g. you say as your last post: “How do I edit my comment??? I was redundant and said situational depression is more common 2x. FIX IT!!!!” Pushy much?!?

            If the other posters were really AS misinformed as you CLAIM, wouldn’t the POOR MODERATOR have HIS OR HER HANDS full taking care of deleting or editing away that misinformation, rather than clearing out your COMMENTS to MAKE YOU LOOK LESS REDUNDANT? It’s as if you THINK THE moderator’s job was to edit your comments TO LOOK less REDUNDANT, and that he or SHE wasn’t BUSY taking care of or deleting away misinformation.

            BUT YOU CAN UNDERSTAND THAT THEY ***WERE*** busy taking CARE OF other people’s texts, LIKELY deleting BAD information there!!!!!!!!! And SO the POOR MODERATOR had his or her hands too FULL to REMOVE THE REDUNDANCY of your comments, which of course was not their job.

            Do you think it’s their job to edit out your redundancy? And that they don’t have his or HER HANDS FULL?

            His or her hands are FULL, Joeg Voll! Too FULL to edit your REDUNDANCY!

            But it’s all about YOU, ISN’T IT?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!?!!!!!!!????????? In fact, I THINK you are likely spending most of your time not responding to the article, but to the IMAGINED INSULT YOU FEEL that got you ALL HOT UNDER THE ELASTIC because you are SOOOOO mad that someone said that prayer DID NOT HELP HIM AND THUS YOU WANT TO TELL THE WORLD THAT HE IS AN A**SHOLE! (Actually you said something else, something filthy, but I shan’t repeat it here, as YOUNG CHILDREN are USUALLY the MOST CURIOUS about serotonin and dopamine enhancements, which you probably know from being a non-PhD EXPERT.) ….

        • September 17, 2018

          Joeg Voll Reply

          Tom Hyper, “Some people don’t understand…” Where does this article say anything about Severely Depressed individuals using these PROVEN tips, in lieu of medical based treatments? There’s actually some great advice in here for you. STOP DWELLING ON YOURSELF AND HOW YOU’RE A VICTIM AND DO SOMETHING FOR SOMEONE ELSE! Your mindset is going to keep you sick! And I DO UNDERSTAND Severe Depression! Self-Victimization and throwing pity parties clearly doesn’t work! That’s what YOU are doing! Then you jump on an article that offeres sound advice. Sorry, but EVERYTHING ISN’T ABOUT YOU! YOU JUST THINK IT IS!

          • February 17, 2019

            D. M. Collins

            … sorry, Joeg Voll, I lost my train of thought for a second but let me get back to my point … YES! CHILDREN are important to THINK about and so please, as a person WHO prays, I beg you not to use words that are both inappropriate and also SACHER-RELIGIOUS and also RUDE! RUDE LIKE WHAT YOU CONDEMN!!!!!!!!!!!!

            You also manifest the same willful IGNORANCE that YOU claim TO hate!!!!! E.g. when you say “You can’t be as miserable as you claim to be, because you obviously don’t want to put fourth [sic] the effort it takes to get better,” it’s as if you have no realization that anhedonia, the disinterest in things THAT ONE ONCE found pleasurable, is often accompanied by an inability TO DO even simple tasks that should be easy, and SO lethargy and LACK OF effort IS actually evidence FOR misery rather THAN proof against IT AS you claim…. I know you’re NOT A PHD but since you ARE AN expert, I feel this willful INTENT to fein LACK of INSIGHT is proof that you WANT to hold…

      • September 17, 2018

        Joeg Voll Reply

        As long as you maintain the attitude you put on display with your Rude comment, you will never get better. It’s all about You, the poor, hopeless victim. The saddest part about your Rude comment is that you are the perfect candidate for the advice (most of which is sound and proven) that the writer shared in the article. Unfortunately you’d rather wallow in Self-Pity, make rude comments, and put people down. Attempting to make positive change takes work, so instead of trying something new, you take the easy way out. No where in this article did the writer say that a person should take this advice in lieu of medical treatment. This advice is a part of a holistic approach, which ALL PhD’s and MD’s will agree, is a far better approach than medicine alone. You can’t be as miserable as you claim to be, because you obviously don’t want to put fourth the effort it takes to get better. But I understand…playing the poor Victim is so much easier and it gives you an excuse, someone/thing else to blame for your own failures. There is No single effective, sustainable treatment for depression. Reliance on medication alone will only set one up for failure. Effectively Trreating depression requires a proactive, holistic plan that addresses the physical, mental and spiritual aspects of a persons life. You can take all the drugs you want, but if the underlying factors aren’t addressed and treated, most will fail. SSRI’s have surprisingly low success rates, (12-22%) Situational Depression is the much more common than Clinical Depression resulting from actual neurotransmitter deficiencies and/or imbalances. Situational Depression is much more common and simply put, if there’s no change in the underlying situational cause and the resulting mental states, medication alone will rarely if ever be effective. This is basic information and you were out of line with your Rude comment.
        P.s. I Do NOT have a PhD.!!! I have a

        • September 17, 2018

          Joeg Voll Reply

          How do I edit my comment??? I was redundant and said situational depression is more common 2x. FIX IT!!!!

          • February 17, 2019

            D. M. Collins

            …. hold a PITY-PARTY for yourSELF! But I understand… playing the poor Victim is so much easier and it gives you an excuse, someone/thing else to blame for your own failures.

            Joeg Voll, as long as you maintain the attitude you put on display with your Rude comments, you will never get better. It’s all about You, the poor, hopeless victim. The saddest part about your Rude comment is that you are the perfect candidate for the advice (most of which is sound and proven) that the writer shared in the article. Unfortunately you’d rather wallow in Self-Pity, make rude comments, and put people down.

            STOP DWELLING ON YOURSELF AND HOW YOU’RE A VICTIM AND DO SOMETHING FOR SOMEONE ELSE! Your mindset is going to keep you sick!

            What do I recommend? Well, for starters, PLEASE do not TURN your ANGER inwards, no matter how tempting or REASONABLE that sounds.

            ***What a WASTE THAT WOULD BE!!!!***

            Few PEOPLE in the world CARE as much as YOU CARE (even if they usually care with more … specificity, and for important things). YOUR RAW “CARE” is a GIFT! And deep, deep, DEEP down, beneath all the abuse and insults, I see someone who is ready to GIVE, even when the GIVING is TOUGH! Or UNFORGIVING! Or UNASKED FOR!!!!!!

            My dear friend (and NOOOO, I did not say “FIEND,” HAHA), I recommend going to several megaphone-BASED charities, which I’ll leave LINKS TO in the DOODLY-DOO below.

            They do good work, on football fields and in field hospitals, handling the other side of beside manner, directing self-pitying crowds, cowing unyielding teens, suppressing freedom of expression by libertines–you know, calling out the bull spit! And some of them wear stiletto heels and thongs. With your enthusiasm, your “CARE,” and your willingness to tell people what is wRONG with them, you could be a positive force for those who really need to be punished. And from the ways you PUNISHED ALL OF US HERE, I think you can learn to hold your head high, give up the self-hate, and learn to love again. SELF-VICTIMIZATION is a terrible thing–but consensual VICTIMIZATION in a SPIRITUAL SPIRIT of PLAY could be the very thing to bring you out of the doldrums and into someone’s druthers.

            May God bless you and keep you! I’ll be praying for you.

          • February 17, 2019

            D. M. Collins

            OH NOOOOO!!! That’s supposed to say “bedside manner,” not “beside manner!” I said something INCORRECT! I DEMAND that things be IMMEDIATELY ALTERED TO SUIT MY NEEDS!!!!!!!!

      • March 13, 2019

        Shelby Johnstun Reply

        My ex used drugs for several years and had the same issue you are talking about. I did find something about 6 weeks ago that did increase all 4 happy hormones naturally. He is living proof of it. He said he always had racing thoughts and never felt happy along with anxiety and depression. If you are interested in getting it let me know I can send you to my site. Yea I make like $10 on it so I’m not messaging you for financial gain. $10 isn’t going to make or break me. I want you to be happy naturally and have some relief ❤️ Shelby Johnstun on fb look me up. Out of Clinton Ut

      • March 28, 2019

        Sarah Reply

        Dave, I am so sorry you are suffering. Studies have shown that your thoughts create your feelings. Your thoughts actually create chemical reactions in your body. I have experienced myself the difference between thinking positive thoughts and thinking negative thoughts. If you start practicing looking on the bright side of things, focusing on things that feel good and basking in happy thoughts/subjects you will see that your mood will start to shift. It takes some practice if you have been in a negative place for awhile, but it is so worth it. You can train your mind to be positive. Just try it. It’s simple and free. 🙂

      • April 12, 2019

        Mark Smith Reply

        I can see how you might think some of the suggestions here are jibberish but you will find that further research reflects our ability to enhance the production of say dopamine. Simple contact with a pet will enhance OXYTOCIN. You can enhance your feelings of importance (as you may have expressed here) by verbalizing your opinions. Life is complex and henceforth you should expect intensive work effort to uncover its complexities. No one said it’s supposed to be easy. I’ve read recently that if you are not learning, you are dying. Live an informed life and do not settle

  2. June 16, 2015

    Maxi Channing Reply

    You are awesome! One of the spiritually blessed and beautiful.

    Check out http://www.matthewbooks.com

    Not my site; just a place I found other inspiration and learning before today. Felt like I needed to share the light.

  3. July 24, 2015

    Luna Darcy Reply

    Hi Tor,

    Love the science behind happiness here.

    Thanks for sharing a valuable and in-depth look on the neurotransmitters responsible for our happiness.

    Luna

  4. July 26, 2015

    Camilla Hallstrom Reply

    Thai, so refreshing actually reading about the science behind it and how to “hack” happiness (instead of vague tips). Great post!

  5. July 28, 2015

    Ayietim Reply

    Hi, thanks for this. Quite revealing and very useful.

  6. August 22, 2015

    Dianne Reply

    Amazing article. All the need to knows about boosting confidence and good relationships. Thank you so much..

  7. October 27, 2015

    FAQs Reply

    […] about the Power of Play, and Why You Should Go Dancing at Least Once a Week (cognitive acuity, endorphin release, etc.). Making moves […]

  8. […] *adaptación de textos de Thai Nguyen […]

  9. […] Giving is the easiest and most effective way to create happiness. When we give Serotonin is released in our brains which is actually biochemically proven to make us happy! Not only does it make us happy by giving, Seratonin is released in those who receive our generosity and the recipient is happy as well. But most interestingly anyone that witnesses this act of giving Serotonin is released and they are happy as well. So there is no better way to scientifically create happiness than to give! […]

  10. March 18, 2016

    Ravi Reply

    Simply Amazing…Thanks a TON

  11. […] controversial study discovered a mutation of a gene that governs the release of serotonin, one of the four neurochemical transmitters responsible for the feeling of happiness. This […]

    • February 15, 2017

      Lilly Reply

      Thanks! thats helpful for my research paper!

  12. […] Desmond Morris, “The Naked Ape” [3] http://www.youramazingbrain.org/lovesex/sciencelove.htm [4] Hacking Into Your Happy Chemicals [5] Biological basis of […]

  13. April 22, 2016

    Delson Reply

    Great post! I love the breakdown and actions you offer that release these amazing chemicals in our brain. This further strengthens people’s reason for laughing, joking, hugging, and gratitude – although I wouldn’t see why people really need a reason for these things – they all feel oh-so-good!!! I’m my own internal happiness generator because I do all these things and more on a daily basis. I can laugh anytime, anywhere, and at anything, without any kind of stimulus and my gratitude for the people, things and circumstances in my life are my foundational practice for the Evolve Meditation I do! It’s an ongoing 24/7 process and it can certainly and literally rewire someone’s brain to become a new and better version of themselves!

  14. […] these really great/inconvenient-in-this-situation things called Endorphins, and when we are sad, stressed, or in pain, our brain tries to shift course by releasing a fresh […]

  15. May 2, 2016

    Mitesh Khatri Reply

    Hi, this is a brilliant article i will definitely and immediately share this on my FB and Blog so more people can benefit from your article. I can say your article was a good shot of Dopamine & Oxytocin 🙂

    Thanks.
    If it interests you, do check my article on How to Stop Worrying http://www.miteshkhatri.com/stop-worrying-3-simple-steps/

  16. […] See full story on Hacking Into Your Happy Chemicals: Dopamine, Serotonin, Endorphins, & Oxytocin […]

    • August 8, 2016

      G Reply

      Does extreme Lactation lead to deficiency of dopamine?

  17. […] and learning. But for some reason, once summer arrives it all becomes very difficult. I found this quite interesting in trying to figure out what my brain is missing now that I am on holiday. It […]

  18. […] wins and your personal growth is crucial for keeping your motivation levels high. Your brain will release dopamine when you consciously celebrate a victory. This will give you fuel to keep moving […]

  19. […] on. When you enjoy actually doing the work and celebrating the little achievements along the way, your body experiences higher dopamine levels. This leads to increased motivation and energy to get even more done. If you find yourself only […]

  20. […] wins and your personal growth is crucial for keeping your motivation levels high. Your brain will release dopamine when you consciously celebrate a victory. This will give you fuel to keep moving […]

  21. […] your little wins is crucial for keeping your motivation levels high. Your brain will release dopamine when you consciously celebrate a victory. Dopamine is fuel for motivation and making new […]

  22. […] your little wins is crucial for keeping your motivation levels high. Your brain will release dopamine when you consciously celebrate a victory. Dopamine is fuel for motivation and making new […]

  23. September 21, 2016

    cc Reply

    I couldn’t help but notice the similiarities to this…
    http://www.thebestbrainpossible.com/how-happy-happens-in-your-brain/

    • September 21, 2016

      [email protected] Reply

      Thanks for letting me know. I’ve sent them an email — I wrote this article in 2014; it’s been copied and pasted on lots of other sites.

  24. […] and starclouds and observing the various Magellanic jewels is likely to result in the release of serotonin and endorphins being triggered in the brain! For people in the southern hemisphere who don’t […]

  25. […] Nguyen, T. (2014). Hacking into your happy chemicals: Dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, & oxytocin [blog file] Retrieved from https://theutopianlife.com/2014/10/14/hacking-into-your-happy-chemicals-dopamine-serotonin-endorphins… […]

  26. […] Спасибо: https://theutopianlife.com/2014/10/14/hacking-into-your-happy-chemicals-dopamine-serotonin-endorphins…. […]

  27. […] low levels of dopamine. Completing dance goals and the cheers and recognition it brings produces dopamine helping us maintain the motivation to complete other tasks and inspires us to keep improving and […]

  28. […] your little wins is crucial for keeping your motivation levels high. Your brain will release dopamine when you consciously celebrate a victory. Dopamine is fuel for motivation and making new habits […]

  29. […] favourite song, dance around and sing like no one is listening. You will be triggering all sorts of happy chemicals and remembering the words will get you out of your negative train of thought for a few […]

  30. May 18, 2017

    Gio Reply

    Aside from the main chemicals of Dopamine, Oxycontin, serotonin, and endorphin, are there any more chemicals that stimulate the body to such positivity?

  31. May 18, 2017

    daisie Reply

    I totally agree with this. Happiness is an important thing in every day life. If you are upset and down chances are your day will continue being rough. If you cheer up and are happy your day will be way better.

  32. May 22, 2017

    Melody Reply

    I think this is a neat way to look at things. Instead of writing how you think things work your blog focuses on how things work. Its actual science and not something that’s pulled out of life experiences.

  33. May 29, 2017

    andhrudu Reply

    Its fun although i am sure this can be useful in biological words but it really doesnt change or bring any happiness

  34. May 29, 2017

    Joel Reply

    I think we all have a deep-rooted fascination with the way our bodies work, and more specifically, the chemicals inside them. I grew up learning about Endorphins and their power to mask pain but had never heard of the other “Big 3”.

    The day I learned about them, was the day that my life changed.

    Just knowing why people (myself included) act the way they act in most circumstances was a game-changer in my life. Frustration was replaced by understanding and the world never looked the same.

    Thank you for taking some time to further increase my knowledge of the chemicals.

    Joel

    Oh, and the infographic is pretty solid as well.

  35. June 2, 2017

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  36. […] your little wins is crucial for keeping your motivation levels high. Your brain will release dopamine when you consciously celebrate a victory. Dopamine is fuel for motivation and making new habits […]

  37. June 5, 2017

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  38. […] reward is the release of brain chemicals following the behavior. This is what reinforced the “bad” behavior. Your brain is […]

  39. […] reward: The reward is the release of brain chemicals following your specific routine. This is what reinforces your “bad” behavior. Your […]

  40. […] reward: The reward is the release of brain chemicals following your specific routine. This is what reinforces your “bad” behavior. Your […]

  41. […] reward: The reward is the release of brain chemicals following your specific routine. This is what reinforces your “bad” behavior. Your […]

  42. […] reward is the release of brain chemicals following your specific routine. This is what reinforces your “bad” behavior. Your […]

  43. […] favourite song, dance around and sing like no one is listening. You will be triggering all sorts of happy chemicals and remembering the words will get you out of your negative train of thought for a few […]

  44. […] reward is the release of brain chemicals following your specific routine. This is what reinforces your “bad” behavior. Your brain is […]

  45. July 19, 2017

    Anterpreet Singh Reply

    Great post I love all the facts about this post.
    I am also planning to make a site on motivation by the name of http://www.belikebillionair.com
    Please guide me how to be successful in this field.
    Thank You.

  46. […] Empathy is not a naturally occurring instinct in everyone. It is one that is acquired during our formative years, cultivated through patient life lessons and understanding. Parents can help their child to develop this skill, which will ultimately make them happier in return. […]

  47. […] Serotonin can reduce anxiety and depression. It contributes to your overall feeling of happiness. […]

  48. […] Serotonin can reduce anxiety and depression. It contributes to your overall feeling of happiness. […]

  49. […] Serotonin can reduce anxiety and depression. It contributes to your overall feeling of happiness. […]

  50. […] reward is the release of brain chemicals following your specific routine. This is what reinforces your “bad” behavior. Your brain is […]

  51. […] telling the difference between what is real and what is imagined and will release positive brain chemicals even while you’re imagining […]

  52. […] Our brain is controlled by a combination of neurochemicals, transmitters, and impulses. We have neurochemicals known as dopamine, serotonin, oxytocin, etc. They are famously known because they are what is released to make you feel good. Studies found that […]

  53. […] serotonina puede reducir la ansiedad y la depresión. Contribuye a tu sentimiento general de […]

  54. November 4, 2017

    Hempextract Reply

    I am very inspired by your effort and for heavy material which you used in this article nice post and informative video shared its very interesting and informative thanks for it.

  55. […] reward is the release of brain chemicals following your specific routine. This is what reinforces your “bad” behavior. Your brain is […]

  56. […] telling the difference between what is real and what is imagined and will release positive brain chemicals even while you’re imagining […]

  57. […] makes you happyHiking is not only good exercise, but it makes you feel happy. Hiking releases endorphins and serotonin, the happy hormones. These help you to deal with anxiety and will stave away depression. Serotonin helps protect […]

  58. […] telling the difference between what is real and what is imagined and will release positive brain chemicals even while you’re imagining […]

  59. […] is not only good exercise, but it makes you feel happy. Hiking releases endorphins and serotonin, the happy hormones. These help you to deal with anxiety and will stave away depression. Serotonin helps protect […]

  60. […] see, that’s what happens when we feel happy. And for those of us who like saving money, that neuronal release of “feel good chemicals” […]

  61. […] Serotonin kann Angstgefühle und Depression lindern. Serotonin macht glücklich. […]

  62. […] References: National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIDA DrugFacts, The Utopian Life, DrugFreeWorld.org […]

  63. March 13, 2018

    Marc Reply

    U r all full of if some of u knew the reality of it the pain mentaly and later physically ull probablly have a little more respect and if u dont have at list leasen to some one that does some of ur coments r insulting we r sick but not stupet when i get an othet 5 min of brain maybe but not really

  64. […] Also give a big familiar applause to cardio, because it improves blood flow but also releases endorphins and serotonin, widely known as the happy chemicals. […]

  65. Why Do Most People Believe That Cancer Is A Disease?

    Everyone has the ability to heal themselves
    There is no cancer that has not been survived by someone,
    regardless oof how far advanced itt was. If even one individual has
    succeeded in healing his cancer, there needs to be
    a mechanism correctly, equally aas there is a mechanism ffor creating
    cancer. Every person on earth has tthe capacity to do both.
    If you have beeen diagnosed with cancer, you might not be
    able to affect the diagnosis, yet it’s ertainly inside your capability to alter the destructive consequences it (the diagnosis) may
    have on you. Thee way you perceive the cancer and also the
    steps where youu will take following the identification are some oof
    the strongest determinants of one’s future wellness, or perhaps the insufficient it.

    90-95 percent of cancers appear and disappear of their very own accord
    The iniscriminate experience of cancer ass being a ‘killer disease’ by professionals and lay people alike has turned
    cancer into a disorder with tragic consequences for
    most today’s cancer patients in addition to their families.

    Cancer has become synonymous with extraordinary suffering, pain, and death.
    This perception continues despite the fact thzt 90-95 perrcent coming from all cancers appear
    and disappear of their very own accord. Not a
    day passes minus the body making numerous cancer
    cells. Some people, under severe temporary stress, make more cancer cells than usual
    and fprm clusters of cancerous cells thst disappear again if tey feel
    great.
    According to medical research, secretions in the DNA’s powerful anticancer drug,
    Interleukin II, drop under physical and mental duress and increase again once the
    person becomes relaxed and joyful. Low secretions of
    Intterleukin II boost the incidence off canceer within the
    body. However, everyone is generally not undsr severe stress on a regular basis.
    Therefore, cancr malignabcy vanish with no way
    of medical intervention and without causing any real
    harm. Riight now, millions of folks are travelling with cancers iinside their body without having
    a clue they have them. Likewise, numerous people heal thir cancers without
    even knowing it. Overall, there are several more spontaneous remissions of cancer than you will find diagnosed and treated cancers.

    Cancer treatments do more harm than good
    The simple truth is, relatively few cancers actually become ‘terminal’ or are even detected.
    The vast majority of cancers remain undiagnosed and thersfore are not found until
    autopsy. Typically, these individuals don’t ddie as a consequence of cancer.
    They don’t even have symptomss that could prompt thee doctr
    to prescribe any with the standard cancer-detecting tests. It should raise everyone’s eyebrows that 30-40 times as
    numerous cases oof thyroid, pancreatic, and prostate cancer are simply in autopsy than are detdcted
    by doctors. Thee British medical journal Lancet published resesarch in 1993 that
    showaed early screening often contributes to unnecessary treatment.
    The reason for that? Although 33 percent of autopsies reveal cancer of prostate,
    only one percent die from it. After age 75, half inn the males could possibly have prostate cancer, but only 2
    percent die as a result. New officia recommendations (August 2008) call for
    oncologists to don’t treat men with cancer of prostate at night age of 75 years because the treatments do more hafm
    than good and give no advantages over no treatment inn any respect.

    It have to be noted these low mortality rats only connect with whoever has neither been clinically determined to have cancer
    nor receivbed any answer to cancer. Mortality rates, however, increase drasticaly
    if cancers aare now being dkagnosed annd treated, which clearly sshows what
    does the killing. Once diagnosed, almost all cancers will neveer be
    given to be able to disappear on their own. They aare promptly targeted with the arsenal of deadly weapons including chhemotherapy drugs,
    radiation, along with the surgical knife. ‘Sleeping’ tumors that would never really cause much harm to our bodies, mayy be aroused into powerful defensive reactions and be aggressive, like relatively harmless bacteria that become dangerous superbugs wheen attacked by antibiotic medication. It makes absolutely no sense that at any given time
    when you require to bolster the body’s most significant healing system – tthe immune
    system – you’d probably subject yourself to radical treatments that really weaken orr destroy the disease fighting capability.

    The trouble with cancer patients is that, terrified by diagnosing, they submit
    their bodies to these cutting/burning/poisoning procedures
    that, more likely than not, will lesad them more quickly towards tthe day of final sentencing:
    “We have to tell you with the deepest regret that there’s nothing more you can do to assist you.”
    The most pressing real question is not, “How advanced or dangerous is my cancer?” but, “What am I doing or otherwise doing that puts my body system in a situation of having to address due to the life?” Why do some
    peoplee prroceed threough cancer just as if it were the flu?

    Are they just lucky, or perhaps iss there a mechanism at the office that creastes the healing?
    On the contrary, what’s the hidden element that prevents our bodies
    from healing cancer naturally, that makes cahcer so dangerous, if ijdeed
    it can be dangerous in any respect?
    People believe cancdr is often a vicious killer
    The techniques to each one of these queries lie while uaing
    individual who has the cancer, aand doesn’t be
    determined by their education of a particular cancer’s ‘viciousness’ or perhaps the advancd stage to which seems like to have progressed.
    Do you believe cancer is oftren a disease? You will more tan likely answer, “Yes,” given the ‘informed’ opinion that
    the medical industry and marketing have fed foor
    the masses for most decades. Yet, greater important but rarely asked question remains, “Why think cancer is a disease?”
    You may answer, “Because I know cancer kills people daily.” I would then question you further, “How are you aware that it is the cancer that kills people?” You would probabpy argue that most people
    that have cancer die, so obviously it haas to be thhe cancer
    that kills them. Besides, you coul possibly reason, all the expert doctors reveal
    so.
    Let mee ask you another question, a rather strange one: “How do you know without a doubt that you are the daughter/son of your respective father and not of some other man?” Is itt when your mother told you so?
    What makes you believe that your particular mother told you reality?
    Probably as you believe her; and you have pointless to not.

    After all, she actually is your mother, and mothers tend not to lie about
    this stuff. Or would they? Although you will not truly know with
    absolute certainty that the person yyou suspect to get your father is, actually,
    yyour father, yyou nevertheless have turned that which you
    subjectively believe into something that you ‘know’,
    into an irreefutable truth.
    Although no scientific proof whatsoever exists to demonstrate that cancer is a disease
    (versus a healing attempt), most people will insist who’s is
    really a diseasee because this iis what they’ve got
    been told to trust. Yet this belief is meerely hearrsay based on other people’s opinions.
    These other people heard exactly the saqme ‘truth’ from somebody else.

    Eventually, the infallible doctrine that cancer is often a disease can be traced
    with a doctors who expressed their subjective feelings or beliefs
    with what that they had observed and published them in a few review articles oor mmedical reports.
    Other doctors agreed using their opinion, and eventually, it bwcame a ‘well-established fact’ that cancer is really a
    vicious illness that somehow gets hold of people as a way tto kill
    them. However, reality of the matter may actually bbe quite different and moree rational and
    scientific than that.

  66. December 11, 2018

    Lazer Reply

    After reading the comments it has become so clear to me that we as a civilisation are still a long way off unlocking the brain and really understanding what causes mental illness and what can fix it . We are all so confused and even attacking each other because of our ignorance on the subject

  67. […] Also give a big familiar applause to cardio, because it improves blood flow but also releases endorphins and serotonin, widely known as the happy chemicals. […]

  68. December 23, 2018

    Mia Reply

    I work in Oncology, my job is to follow every patient diagnosed with cancer. I follow my patients for a minimum of ten years. Some refuse treatment, some choose holistic alternatives, some choose their faith in God and prayer and some choose the recommendation by their MD of chemo and/or radiation. I can say with 100% accuracy that no cancer has ever gone away, no one’s body has attacked the cancer and cured it. No prayer has ever made a cancerous tumor disappear. No holistic treatment has ever helped heal, cure or shrink a malignant mass. The only cure I have ever seen was the result of surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. I report this to anyone concerned because it is a fact. It cannot be disputed.

    With that being said, I have seen a small number of patients who later had a new area of malignancy that had metastasized and they passed as a result. This number is low.

    You will always run into someone who will spin the facts. I had a pt with pancreatic cancer. Diagnosed late stage. Plan was chemo to shrink mass, surgery to remove mass, then to extend her life and keep her comfortable. It was a difficult surgery. But the surgeon was able to remove it. When he came to tell her husband that he had good news, that he was able to remove the entire mass, the husband said…that was not your hands, I prayed that God would guide your hands. So he told everyone that God cured her cancer. She died six months later. So who killed her?

    As for anyone’s negative comments about the article written, it’s not that people don’t appreciate the effort or goodwill behind the article, it’s just that anyone with depression is depressed, so they’re not going to sugar coat their answers because they are in pain, they are suffering. It’s like telling the homeless man to buy a house, or the junkie to just stop using heroin.

    • January 20, 2019

      Jen Reply

      Quite twisted thinking and also the deep problem with our so called “healing” medical system presently. You are wrong a million times over. There are thousands of survivors of a variety of level 4 cancer survivors using a variety to healing tools that have kept them healthy, well and cured. Hope with tools beyond traditional doctors is real.

  69. […] regular physical activity provides your brain with a surge of dopamine and other happy chemicals such as serotonin, oxytocin, and endorphins. Addiction throws off your brain’s ability to release […]

  70. February 3, 2019

    mywebsite Reply

    I think that everything wrote made a ton of sense.
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    open the links. You might try adding a video or a picture or two to grab people excited about what you’ve written. Just my opinion,
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  71. […] neurotransmitters which play an important role in working of the brain. These neurotransmitters are serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Serotonin helps to keep brain activity under control. It affects mood, anger, aggressiveness, and […]

  72. […] Movement– move your body in whatever way feels good. It could be going from a run, doing a 20 minute cardio workout, or going for an evening walk. When you move your body, you’re releasing all those “feel good” hormones, such as: endorphins, dopamine and serotonin. […]

  73. […] Many research projects are undertaken, looking at the role of oxytocin in addiction, brain injury, anorexia and stress, among other topics. How is oxytocin controlled? There is also a positive feedback involved in the milk-ejection reflex. Paper 12 19247 806. Advanced endocrine system physiology | Health and medicine. Hacking Into Your Happy Chemicals: Dopamine, Serotonin, Endorphins, & Oxytocin | The Utopian Lif…. […]

  74. […] Parts of this article originally published by Thai on The Utopian Life […]

  75. […] the manager can foresee an opportunity is likely to release “happy” neurotransmitters such as dopamine (motivation), serotonin (satisfaction) and oxytocin (trust) that will induce a feeling of achievement. Positive conversations that produce a “good feeling” […]

  76. June 10, 2019

    Telly Reply

    Depression cured by having a best friend. We say nice things to each other more than we say mean things. It mattered. 🙂 Good luck to anyone searching for their best buddy!

  77. September 17, 2019

    Stacy Mizrahi Reply

    I thought dopamine as a neurotransmitter didn’t have any euphoric effects? I remember this debate years ago when Gary Wilson had his TED talk. Many neuroscience professionals called him out on insinuating that dopamine had his effect, rather than it only served a function in learning.

  78. October 16, 2019

    Yoga Login Reply

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  79. […] neurotransmitters which play an important role in working of the brain. These neurotransmitters are serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Serotonin helps to keep brain activity under control. It affects mood, anger, aggressiveness, and […]

  80. January 7, 2020

    Becky Reply

    From where I’m standing this article is not saying that self help methods will cure depression, or that they are a replacement for medication.
    I have taken anti-depressants for 5yrs and have found them helpful in getting me to a place where I can do the things that also help boost my mood, such as exercise, socialising, enjoyable activities. Which I couldn’t do prior to taking the medication.
    However, I do not agree that medication should be relied upon and a large part of feeling better and lifting mood/boosting self-esteem/reducing negativity is down to us and needs to come from doing things that make us feel good – whatever that means for you. For me, that means playing boardgames and eating well and going for a daily walk.
    I am sure, there are many who will not agree with me, and that is fine – you have every right to (so please don’t be abusive).
    I am a mental health nurse and work with many people who have depression (amongst other disorders) and I see first hand how medication helps, but also how many people do not recover without putting the effort in to do things which at first they see no value in, or do not have much motivation to do. All I can say is the saying “fake it until you make it” really is true, once you are in the right place to start doing so.

  81. February 19, 2020

    Art Marr Reply

    Happiness and Affective Neuroscience
    Happiness is an elusive property, but it can be argued that it should meet certain objective criteria. This is the argument of the affective neuroscientists Kent Berridge and Morton Kringelbach. Per this model (linked below), happiness is a function of affective states of arousal and pleasure mediated respectively by the activation of mid brain dopamine and opioid systems. However, this analysis neglects the fact that these systems when jointly activated co-stimulate each other and provide an enhanced affective experience that is subjectively reported as ‘peak’ or ‘flow’ experience. This observation can also be easily repeated procedurally, as demonstrated below.

    Simple Procedure
    Just attain and sustain a state of rest (mindfulness practice is the best way to achieve this) and simultaneously and consistently engage exclusively in meaningful or important behavior and you will feel relaxed, pleasurably aroused, and ‘intrinsically’ motivated. The more meaningful the behavior, the greater the affective response. That’s it.

    Simple Explanation
    Individuals who engage in tasks that have a consistent and high degree of ‘meaning’ (e.g. sporting events, creative activity) naturally experience a state of high alertness and arousal (but not pleasure) that maps neurologically to the activation of mid-brain dopamine systems. However, many of these individuals also report a concurrent feeling of pleasure or bliss, but these reports are evidenced only in non-stressed situations when the covert musculature is inactive or relaxed. Since relaxation engages opioid systems in the brain, and because opioid (pleasure) and dopamine (arousal) systems stimulate each other, blissful states require the simultaneous engagement of resting protocols and meaningful cognitive states, behaviors that can be very easily achieved and sustained.

    I offer a more detailed theoretical explanation in pp. 47-52, and pp 82-86 of my open source book on the neuroscience of resting states, ‘The Book of Rest’, linked below.

    The Psychology of Rest
    https://www.scribd.com/doc/284056765/The-Book-of-Rest-The-Odd-Psychology-of-Doing-Nothing

    Meditation and Rest
    from the International Journal of Stress Management, by this author
    https://www.scribd.com/doc/121345732/Relaxation-and-Muscular-Tension-A-bio-behavioristic-explanation

    Berridge-Kringelbach on the Neuroscience of Happiness
    https://sites.lsa.umich.edu/berridge-lab/wp-content/uploads/sites/743/2019/10/Berridge-Kringelbach-2011-Building-neuroscience-of-pleasure-well-being-Psychol-of-Well-Being.pdf

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